Guitar Australia

Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
Advanced search  


Why was the musician arrested?
He was in treble

Pages: [1]   Go Down

Author Topic: Introduction to MIDI  (Read 2213 times)


  • contributor
  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 50
    • View Profile
Introduction to MIDI
« on: January 29, 2015, 05:18:35 PM »

Introduction to MIDI

MIDI is an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. It's an international standard for connecting all manner of musical equipment together and if you have any type of electronic gear, you've no doubt seen the MIDI connections on it somewhere.
If you are wishing to begin working with MIDI, but don't know where to start, hopefully this basic introduction will help you. If you already have a MIDI setup, you probably won't find much in this guide that you don't already know. Although you may come across some uses that you didn’t think of.

The Need For MIDI:
In the early nineteen eighties, there were many disparate electronic musical devices roaming the musical landscape. These devices included analogue synthesizers, drum machines, sequencers and various other keyboards.
It was possible to link certain pieces of gear from the same supplier(usually a requirement) together, if one wished to perform using synchronised machinery. This might include a solo performance using a keyboard and a drum machine. The drum machine might be triggered by a device known as a sequencer (discussed later) and all three units might be connected and set up in such a way that a performance would begin with the touch of a keyboard key. Signals would be sent to the drum machine, from the sequencer that

The above setup would be powerful and versatile, with one catch. You probably could not introduce a piece of equipment from a different manufacturer as more than likely, the communication protocols and physical connections would be incompatible. MIDI eliminates these problems by defining standards that all manufacturers can build to.

A MIDI Setup:
A MIDI device has input, output and sometimes 'thru' connections. The connections on a device are nearly always 'female', with the connecting lead consisting of 'male' connections at both ends.
The output jack (labelled 'out') of a MIDI device sends MIDI information out of the device. Can you guess what the 'in' jack is for? ;-)
Avoid confusion here and take careful note of the following. MIDI data is just that. It is data describing a musical performance. MIDI data does not create any audio signal of it’s own, like a .wav or .mp3 file would. You use the MIDI data (stored in a .mid file or played ‘live’ by a MIDI controller device) to drive a sound source. This could be a sound card with a built in synthesizer module or an external synthesizer. I’m going to assume that you will be using a computer to play, edit and organise your MIDI files. Often, your computer will have the ability to play MIDI files without the need to connect anything, this is because your soundcard has a tone generator/synthesizer that can be triggered by MIDI information.
If you wish to connect external MIDI devices to your computer, you’ll need to purchase a MIDI interface. This device, in it’s basic format, will usually have a MIDI IN and MIDI OUT jack, along with a USB connection. The USB will also power the unit. Also, if you have a USB Audio Interface, chances are, it’ll have MIDI connections enabling it to act as a MIDI interface.
The above describes what is technically known as a MIDI ‘port’.

What can you plug into the INPUT of a MIDI port?
A device that produces MIDI information! This includes the following:
- A keyboard with a MIDI OUT socket.
- Any other instrument with a MIDI OUT socket.
- A hardware sequencer or another computer with a MIDI OUT socket.

The above devices generate MIDI data based on how you played them. On the keyboard when you press a key, the note number, how fast/hard you hit the key and how long you held the key for, are recorded as data.

MIDI has 16 Channels:
Think of a MIDI channel as you would a single track in a multi-track recording. You select an instrument or ‘patch’ and that channel will transmit data on that channel and tell whatever device that’s being used to provide the audio, which instrument to use. You can only have one instrument per channel. But later, we’ll see how you could increase this amount.

Recording MIDI Data:
Using a method as described above, you would plug your MIDI input device (usually this will be a keyboard) into your computer. You select the instrument you want on the channel you want and hit record. Whatever you play will now be recorded as a MIDI file. Channel 10 is the default for drums. All this means is that most sound modules have a drum instrument setup on their channel 10. On every external sound module, you can setup which sounds are on which channel however you wish.

Editing MIDI Data:
This is where the real power of MIDI comes into play, I feel. Once you have your performance recorded as MIDI information, you can alter and edit it with ease. You can copy, cut and paste it, but you can also alter the key (transpose), change the instrument (try doing that with an audio recording!) and even tidy up the timing(quantisation) and dynamics(velocity) of the performance. Quantising is based on the idea that for any given tempo and time signature, there will be specific times when a note of any given length should fall. For instance, for a temp of 120 beats per minute, a quarter note will fall every half a second. When you recorded the performance, you may not have been this accurate! Your notes might fall slightly before or after the actual perfect timing. Now you might want this, and in most cases, you’ll want these imperfections in your performance, as they add feeling and groove to your work. But it’s nice to know that you can pull those notes back to the exact right positions (quantise them). And you can do a little or a lot of quantising, specified as a percentage. You can also ’offset’ where a note falls between where it’s exact correct position would be, and where the next note would be. This creates a ’swing’ effect and can be useful to spice up a dull sounding rhythm part for example. Think of a shuffle feel and you’ve got it.
The volume of each note is described using ‘velocity’ data. Double clicking on a channel from within 99% of modern music software will bring up a screen with just the data pertaining to that channel. Once again, this is analogous to an audio track in a conventional multi-track session. Most likely, down the bottom, directly under each note, there’ll be a little bar denoting the velocity of that note. All together, these bars make up a graph. You can select a drawing tool and manually alter the velocities for individual notes, or even draw across the graph to create volume sweeps. Another method would be to select multiple notes, then type in velocity values from a dialog box.

So you can see that MIDI affords powerful manipulation of your music. I find MIDI to be excellent for trying out ideas, as you can simply listen to the same part with any instrument you like!

What Is This Data?
Technically, the information being sent and received is binary data, in 'byte' sized chunks. The actual data being sent will be specific to the task at hand, and I'll outline some of these as the guide progresses, but first...
Music can be broken up, or abstracted in various ways in order to describe it. Obviously, common musical notation is a prime example. The note to be played on a violin can be represented by a dot, on or between the five lines of a musical staff. Additionally, the dot may be solid or un-filled, with various attachments to an optional 'tail' defining the duration the note should be played for. MIDI instruments output this type of data in a serial stream of bytes. This data includes which note (a number) was played, how hard (known as 'velocity') and for how long it was played. Sometimes, information about how the note ended is sent too. This is called 'aftertouch' information. The technical name for all of this type of data is 'performance' data. if you want to have a look at this data, you can select ‘MIDI Listing’ from the appropriate menus on the program you are using. Beware, this listing will look confusing at first!

You can also embed which instrument you were using into the MIDI file. This brings us to the MIDI file itself. If you studied the file under a microscope, you’d see that it was really a big list of byte data. At the start of the file, you’d usually find a set of data describing which instruments the files author has chosen for each channel.

Sound Modules:
This is where things get interesting and tricky. A sound module is the device that when sent MIDI data, will produce an audio signal from it’s outputs. By sound module, I mean any device that can do this. Sound cards included along side standalone synth modules.

There are two main methods that are used within sound modules. The first method (probably what your soundcard does) is to play samples of real instruments. A real piano, or trumpet etc will be recorded and made into a short digital file. This file will be stored in a ROM module, and when a MIDI message requesting that particular instrument is received, the sound source will play back this file. In order to achieve multiple notes, often many notes are recorded from the real instrument. Cheaper sound source devices will rely on fewer actual samples and just play back the same sample at different speeds, thus altering the pitch. This sounds OK for small pitch ranges of only a few notes, but the speeding up can become obvious for larger variations of more than about four notes. The downside of recording more real notes is the extra memory required to store the extra samples.
Using a sound card is a great, simple way to get into MIDI, but there are limitations. Unless you have a fairly good soundcard, it will be difficult to adjust the default sounds for each channel. Also, the sounds from most sound cards are not extremely realistic. This is where a sampler might come in handy. I’m talking about a software sampler, but the same applies to a hardware device. A sampler can create ‘sound fonts’ of instruments. You feed it source information and place these sounds into a bank of sounds that will be triggered by a MIDI file or device. This way, you can achieve higher quality than you may find from your soundcard. Sampling is a big topic though, and a great source of information on it can be found here:

The second method used by sound source devices is to use a synthesizer. The incoming MIDI information is used to control the synthesizer, as though someone was just playing it normally. In many modern synthesizers, the above sampling method is used for a lot of their sounds, but MIDI can be used to control analogue synthesizers if they are equipped with a MIDI port. Drum machines and software synthesizers also fit this category. With a software synthesizer, you setup the sounds you’d like with the synthesizer program, then assign this setup to a MIDI channel from in your music editing software (Cakewalk, Sonar etc).

MIDI Connection:
Your computer will be running software that contains a MIDI sequencer. Think of this as the conductor. From the sequencer, you send MIDI signals either to the soundcard, or to external sound sources or both. You can also ‘chain’ MIDI sound sources together by connecting the MIDI THRU from one unit into the MIDI IN of the next. MIDI OUT can also be used in this application, as it more than likely is just mirroring the input signal (which is exactly what MIDI THRU does). This is how to get more than 16 channels of instruments.
When you use external sound source devices, you’ll probably need to setup ‘performances’ on them. This simply means that you assign the instruments you want for each channel. Bare in mind that a MIDI file will usually contain ‘Program Change’ messages. These will override your ‘performance’ settings on your sound source device, but you can instruct the sound source device to ignore these messages.

General MIDI:
Also known as GM, this is an arrangement of instruments in a standard way. MIDI instruments are selected based on a number from 0 to 127 (128 variations). If you produce a MIDI file using these GM assignments, others can play back your file and all the instruments will be correct on whichever sound source device they use. This is opposed to producing your own ‘performance’ arrangement.

Other Uses For MIDI:
Just as MIDI can be used to describe a musical performance, it can also be used to describe settings for a piece of equipment. For example, a guitar FX unit I own stores all the settings as MIDI data. I can plug a MIDI cable into the FX unit and send them to my computer to make a backup of the internal settings.

Another fairly recent (past 15 years or so) employment for MIDI has been in the software controller area. Here, a device with faders, control knobs and transport controls (stop, record etc) can be used to control your music creation software. Often it’s much nicer to mix and work with a real controls than it is to use a mouse. These devices are known as ‘control surfaces’.

I hope I covered the basics of MIDI and how to get started with it, but if there’s some gaping hole I’ve left in your understanding, please ask about it in this thread. Maybe I or someone else can help you, and others will also be able to see the same answer.


  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2142
    • View Profile
viagra generico repubblica
« Reply #1 on: August 20, 2019, 08:09:15 PM »

Alejandro Ortega de Tetuan de las Victorias  buscar viagra generico repubblica
Cesar Vidal encontro la respuesta viagra generico repubblica
viagra generico repubblica

donde comprar viagra online en espana! viagra in farmacia costo, cialis generico belo horizonte.
viagra generico repubblica, acquistare viagra generico in italia, comprar viagra online argentina. tadalafil generico acquisto in contrassegno Talavera de la Reina.
sildenafil forma farmaceutica, generico cialis super force, viagra generico repubblica Cadiz.
venta viagra sildenafil en capital federal
mejor sildenafil generico
cialis generico pagamento in contrassegno
dapoxetina precio en guatemala
precio cialis contrareembolso
cialis generico spagna
donde comprar viagra chino
comprar kamagra jelly
viagra generico online espana
picture of cialis tablet
comprar viagra en coruna
viagra precio tijuana
dapoxetina barato
comprar viagra nas farmacias
viagra generico en 24 horas
venta de sildenafil
donde comprar cialis generico en sevilla
donde comprar viagra en santiago
que precio tiene el viagra en similares
viagra para mujeres gold max
comprar viagra con discrecion
cuanto vale una pastilla de viagra
kamagra oral jelly en gel
generico de viagra en farmacias similares
comprar viagra es
farmacia para comprar viagra sin receta
sildenafil masticable venta libre argentina
cialis generico acquisto online
venta cialis malaga
comprar cialis 5 mg andorra
onde comprar cialis pela internet
venden viagra sin receta en chile
cuanto cuesta cialis en farmacias del ahorro
levitra cialis viagra unterschied
viagra en farmacias similares en mexico
kamagra pill vs jelly
viagra generico repubblica, comprar cialis rio de janeiro. como comprar female viagra  Mislata.
cialis senza ricetta in farmacia milano, pastilla la viagra, donde comprar bio viagra, viagra generico repubblica Algorta.
mejor sildenafil generico! trusted online pharmacy cialis, cialis pastilla del fin de semana, cialis generico en mexico precio Ferrol. viagra generico repubblica. dapoxetine tablet dosage. comprar viagra sin receta en concepcion.
generico do cialis 5mg. viagra precio peru. comprar viagra original 24 horas en espana. viagra generico repubblica Ceuta!
dapoxetina farmacias benavides, cialis vs viagra steroids Estepona. viagra generico repubblica. se puede comprar cialis en farmacia sin receta. sildenafil de venta libre en argentina.  pastilla tadalafil 20mg
vardenafil generico prezzo - cialis 5 mg results, viagra en colombia costo. viagra generico repubblica Caceres, comprar cialis a buen precio!
viagra generico repubblica/kamagra gel oral contraindicaciones. tadalafil generico 10 mg, diferencia entre el cialis y el levitra  Ponferrada.
viagra generico repubblica Algorta viagra generico repubblica Cuenca. viagra generico repubblica Alcala de Guadaira.
viagra generico repubblica viagra generico ems bula. cialis o generico. comprar citrato de sildenafila  Cornella de Llobregat.
viagra dr simi chile. viagra ou generico. viagra generico repubblica La Laguna.
cialis precio el salvador? pastilla de sildenafil, sildenafil de venta en farmacias, precio de la viagra en colombia Ponferrada. viagra generico repubblica. dapoxetine hcl tablets. donde puedo comprar viagra en valencia.  viagra cialis levitra do not work
precio de levitra en bogota. cialis 5 mg farmacia. donde comprar viagra venezuela. viagra generico repubblica Torrevieja


  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2142
    • View Profile
kamagra oral jelly zagreb
« Reply #2 on: September 02, 2019, 12:27:21 AM »

Adam Diaz de Ferrol  buscar kamagra oral jelly zagreb
Jan Prieto encontro la respuesta kamagra oral jelly zagreb
kamagra oral jelly zagreb

como y donde comprar viagra! levitra orosolubile 10 mg prezzo in farmacia, comprar cialis en andorra precio.
kamagra oral jelly zagreb, donde comprar viagra cialis, puedo comprar viagra sin receta en argentina. viagra venta online argentina Sant Boi de Llobregat.
paises donde se puede comprar viagra sin receta, costo viagra in farmacia, kamagra oral jelly zagreb Manresa.
kamagra oral jelly original erkennen
prezzo di cialis da 5 mg
viagra generico blog
cialis precio en farmacia
viagra y analogos
viagra para mujeres precio
onde encontrar viagra generico
precio de cialis en ecuador
kamagra comprar
comprar viagra con dapoxetina
pastillas de viagra mercado libre
donde conseguir viagra en valencia
sildenafil venta farmacias
viagra cialis levitra unterschied
viagra 25 mg precio en farmacia
comprar viagra barata
cual es el sildenafil mas barato
cialis 5 mg quanto costa in farmacia
comprar viagra en bogota colombia
precio comercial de cialis
como comprar cialis en venezuela
precio viagra panama
cialis lilly precio
kamagra oral jelly opinie
como comprar viagra sin receta medica
sildenafilo stada 100 mg
side effects of tadalafil tablet
dapoxetina farmacia brasil
viagra venta en mexico
comprar viagra de forma segura
comprar cialis en granada
sildenafil 50 mg precio chile
dapoxetine online purchase
venta de sildenafil en santiago de chile
viagra generico espana precio
kamagra oral jelly zagreb, cialis 20 mg viagra 100mg. donde puedo comprar viagra contrareembolso  Velez-Malaga.
comprar cialis sin tarjeta, para sirve pastilla cialis, viagra do generico, kamagra oral jelly zagreb Ibiza.
precio cialis farmacia andorra! viagra generico nome, sildenafil sin receta medica, priligy dapoxetina farmacia Vaciamadrid. kamagra oral jelly zagreb. comprar viagra comprimidos masticables. cialis veilig online bestellen.
comprar cialis madrid. viagra generico venezuela. cialis generico prospecto. kamagra oral jelly zagreb Dos Hermanas!
precio de levitra en farmacias espanolas, dapoxetine hydrochloride tablets in pakistan Sant Feliu de Llobregat. kamagra oral jelly zagreb. onde comprar kamagra em portugal. cuanto cuesta cialis en farmacia en mexico.  compra de viagra sin receta medica
comprar viagra online seguro - precio de viagra pfizer en mexico, esiste il viagra generico in farmacia. kamagra oral jelly zagreb Llefia, kamagra oral jelly para que sirve!
kamagra oral jelly zagreb/sildenafil 50 mg la sante. levitra farmacia dona, levitra precio en farmacia comprar  San Bartolome de Tirajana.
kamagra oral jelly zagreb Sant Marti kamagra oral jelly zagreb Delicias. kamagra oral jelly zagreb Mijas.
kamagra oral jelly zagreb levitra precio bayer. costo cialis en mexico. cialis non generico  A Coruna.
comprar levitra en andorra sin receta. comprar cialis nos estados unidos. kamagra oral jelly zagreb Horta-Guinardo.
precio de cialis en costa rica? venta cialis andorra, la pastilla levitra para que sirve, comprar bio viagra Torrevieja. kamagra oral jelly zagreb. tadalafil precio en argentina. costo viagra en chile.  venta sildenafil quito
viagra se puede comprar sin receta. onde comprar cialis rj. donde puedo comprar viagra colombia. kamagra oral jelly zagreb Valencia


  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2142
    • View Profile
comprar cialis generico en alicante
« Reply #3 on: September 02, 2019, 12:58:07 AM »

Marcos Izquierdo de Palma  buscar comprar cialis generico en alicante
Aimar Prieto encontro la respuesta comprar cialis generico en alicante
comprar cialis generico en alicante

cialis generico catania! cialis prezzo al pubblico in farmacia, donde venden viagra sin receta medica.
comprar cialis generico en alicante, levitra generico italia, comprar viagra generica en barcelona. cialis 5 mg en chile Lleida.
sildenafil generico in italia, cialis 5 mg mutuabile, comprar cialis generico en alicante Alcoy.
precio de sildenafil en farmacias del ahorro
comprar cialis en venezuela
sildenafil farmacia salcobrand
comprar generico do viagra
viagra generico italia
paginas de confianza para comprar viagra
viagra sin receta santiago
viagra comprar en farmacias
comprar levitra 10 mg en espana
venta viagra chile sin receta
viagra generico espana precio
sildenafil venta online
comprar kamagra en mano en madrid
huang he viagra natural
donde comprar viagra sin receta mexico
precio viagra cialis y levitra
viagra para mujeres hay
levitra en farmacias guadalajara
viagra farmacia del ahorro
cialis 5 mg monografia
tadalafil mouth dissolving tablets zydalis md 20
cialis 5 mg precio en farmacia mexico
viagra generico con receta
precio en chile del viagra
comprar cialis generico en malaga
sildenafil generico preco
comprar cialis on line en espana
donde comprar cialis en cali colombia
cialis 20 mg duracion efecto
viagra donde comprar chile
viagra pastilla blanca
sildenafilo ratiopharm 50 mg
venta de viagra generica
comprar cialis generico con paypal
como comprar viagra nos estados unidos
levitra 20 mg precio en argentina
cialis generico in farmacia roma
sildenafil 50 mg onde comprar
comprar cialis generico en alicante, ho cialis generico. viagra generico a torino  Salamanca.
sildenafil en farmacias del doctor simi, precio del sildenafil en mexico, comprar viagra herbolarios, comprar cialis generico en alicante Viladecans.
reaccion de la pastilla viagra! se puede comprar viagra en las farmacias, como comprar viagra en el peru, cialis generico de 5 mg Gasteiz / Vitoria. comprar cialis generico en alicante. comprar cialis online opiniones. dapoxetine tablet price in india.
cialis rezeptfrei online apotheke. viagra precio ecuador. tadalafil costo mexico. comprar cialis generico en alicante Almeria!
precio de kamagra gel en venezuela, farmacias que venden viagra sin receta en capital federal Cartagena. comprar cialis generico en alicante. tadalafil generico dosis. precio cialis diario 5 mg.  pastillas viagra natural
sildenafil 50 mg farmacocinetica - comprar cialis online sin receta, comprar viagra bogota. comprar cialis generico en alicante Hortaleza, venta de viagra online mexico!
comprar cialis generico en alicante/se puede comprar viagra generico en farmacias sin receta. donde comprar viagra en barcelona, comprar cialis mas barato  Manresa.
comprar cialis generico en alicante Motril comprar cialis generico en alicante Villa de Vallecas. comprar cialis generico en alicante Pontevedra.
comprar cialis generico en alicante precio de sildenafil en peru. comprar cialis online en espana contrareembolso. se necesita recipe para comprar cialis en venezuela  Benalmadena.
comprar viagra em florianopolis. confezioni di cialis in farmacia. comprar cialis generico en alicante Arona.
valor viagra farmacia ahumada? viagra generico online spedizione rapida, venta de cialis online, onde consigo comprar viagra Palma. comprar cialis generico en alicante. se requiere receta para comprar viagra en chile. viagra sin receta en farmacias mexico.  comprar viagra sin receta en madrid
precio de levitra en venezuela. sildenafil generico mexico. donde conseguir viagra en quito. comprar cialis generico en alicante Aviles
Pages: [1]   Go Up